|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 60-62
Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture revealing infective endocarditis
Salma Charfeddine1, Syrine Triki1, Majdi Gueldiche2, Tarek Ellouze1, Amine Bahloul1, Faten Triki1, Leila Abid1
1 Department of Cardiology, Hedi Chaker University Hospital of Sfax, University of Medicine of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
2 Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital of Sfax, University of Medicine of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia
|Date of Submission||31-Jul-2021|
|Date of Decision||26-Jan-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||12-Feb-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Apr-2022|
Department of Cardiology, Hedi Chaker University Hospital of Sfax, University of Medicine of Sfax, BP 54, Cite Elhabib 3052, Sfax
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The rupture of mitral papillary muscles is a very rare complication of infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture resulting in severe mitral regurgitation due to IE in a young man without previous heart disease. The patient underwent urgent mitral valve replacement. The isolated rupture of the mitral papillary muscle complicating IE is rare. Urgent surgery should be performed is such cases.
Keywords: Infective endocarditis, mitral regurgitation, papillary muscle rupture, surgery
|How to cite this article:|
Charfeddine S, Triki S, Gueldiche M, Ellouze T, Bahloul A, Triki F, Abid L. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture revealing infective endocarditis. J Cardiovasc Echography 2022;32:60-2
|How to cite this URL:|
Charfeddine S, Triki S, Gueldiche M, Ellouze T, Bahloul A, Triki F, Abid L. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture revealing infective endocarditis. J Cardiovasc Echography [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Apr 1];32:60-2. Available from: https://www.jcecho.org/text.asp?2022/32/1/60/343537
| Introduction|| |
Infective endocarditis (IE) is not a rare disease. It is more frequent in the presence of valvular disease. The IE lesions consist of vegetations and valvular destructions that are located essentially on the valves. The rupture of the mitral papillary muscle due to IE is a very rare complication., We report here a case of severe mitral regurgitation occurring on normal mitral valve with anterolateral papillary muscle rupture due to IE.
| Case Report|| |
A diabetic 26-year-old man was admitted to our center for prolonged fever for 2 weeks associated with fatigue and general malaise, as well as loss of appetite. He had no history of rheumatic or congenital heart disease. At admission, the patient was febrile at 39°C and tachycardic. His lung sounds were clear, and no cardiac murmur was audible. There were no signs of heart failure.
The laboratory tests showed an inflammatory syndrome. An echocardiographic evaluation revealed a normal global systolic left ventricular function, no valvular disease but we noted a 15 mm × 11 mm mobile oscillating large mass with an echogenic content attached to the mitral anterolateral papillary muscle [Figure 1]. The diagnoses of a large septic vegetation or a papillary hydatid cyst were hypothesized.
|Figure 1: (a) Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), four chamber-view. Arrow points to large mobile mass in the left ventricle (LV) attached to the mitral apparatus. (b) Modified TTE four chamber view. Arrow points to the mass attached the anterolateral papillary muscle. (c) TTE parasternal long axis (PSLA) view. Measurements of the mass (arrow). (d) TTE color Doppler mode. The absence of color on the mass. (e and f) Transesophageal echocardiogram (TTE) views. Arrow points to the same mass in the left ventricle attached to the mitral apparatus. Ao: Aorta, LA: left atrium|
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Hence, after infectious investigations (hemocultures, hydatid serology, and mycobacterium tuberculosis research), empirical intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy was initiated with ceftriaxone, teicoplanin, metronidazole, and rifampicin. However, there was no clinical amelioration and fever had persisted. A thoracoabdominal computed tomography revealed multiple hypodensities of the brain, the liver, and the spleen consistent with septic emboli. Few days after hospitalization, the patient's clinical condition worsened and pulmonary congestion appeared suddenly. The physical examination revealed a new pansystolic murmur consistent with mitral regurgitation. There was no electrocardiographic change suggesting an acute or subacute myocardial infarction.
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examinations were repeated. Echocardiographic studies showed a hyperdynamic left ventricle with no regional wall motion abnormality but we noticed severe mitral regurgitation with a prolapse of the anterior mitral valve due to the rupture of the mitral anterolateral papillary muscle, which explained the patient clinical status [Figure 2]. The diagnosis of IE complicated by severe mitral regurgitation was established. The patient underwent urgent prosthetic mitral valve replacement. On surgical inspection, complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary mitral muscle was found [Figure 3].
|Figure 2: (a) Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), parasternal long axis (PSLA) view. Arrow points to image prolapsed to the left atrium (LA) during. (b) Modified PSLA view showed important mitral regurgitation due to the anterior mitral valve prolapse. (c-e) Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Arrow points to mobile mass in the left ventricle (LV) with important mitral regurgitation. (f) Transgastric TEE view. Arrow points to anterolateral papillary muscle rupture. Ao: Aorta|
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|Figure 3: Arrow points to the rupture of the tip of the anterolateral papillary muscle on surgical inspection|
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Pathology showed a nonspecific inflammation, ischemic necrosis, and focal abscesses which were consistent with IE. Given the histologic examination results, the diagnosis was a rupture of anterolateral papillary muscle secondary to mitral valve IE. After 6 weeks of IV antibiotic therapy, the patient was uneventfully discharged.
| Discussion|| |
IE is a commonly encountered clinical problem, especially in patients with predisposing heart disease. Most often, the mitral valve regurgitation in IE is due to the destruction of the valvular leaflets themselves. The isolated rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle is much rarer and has only been described to the best of our knowledge in four previous cases.,,, There are many possible causes of ruptures of papillary muscle in IE that include ischemic necrosis due to coronary embolism, deposition of bacteria due to aortic regurgitation, or direct invasion along with the subvalvular apparatus by virulent germ such as staphylococcus. In our case, the cause of mitral regurgitation was due to direct germ invasion of the papillary muscle. The TEE, with the transgastric view, is essential to determine the mechanism of mitral regurgitation in such cases. The ruptured anterolateral papillary muscle is well-defined as a separate mass attached to the chordae. Although we were unable to show any bacteria on histological examination and culture of the papillary muscle, active inflammation was a strong criterion for the IE diagnosis. The absence of isolated germ may be explained by the use of empiric antibiotics at admission.
In conclusion, the diagnosis of IE should be made if a large mass on the anterolateral muscle is observed on echocardiography in the case of sepsis, even in the absence of valvular disease. The rupture of the papillary muscle in the setting of mitral regurgitation should be considered.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that his name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal his identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]