Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 103-113

Echocardiographic assessment of heart valve prostheses

1 Chair of Cardiology, Second University of Naples, Italy
2 Unit of Cardiology, Vincenzo Monaldi Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale, Ospedali dei Colli, Naples, Italy

Date of Web Publication17-Dec-2014

Correspondence Address:
Chiara Sordelli
Via della Gioventý 12 80059, Torre del greco (NA)
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2211-4122.147201

Rights and Permissions

Patients submitted to valve replacement with mechanical or biological prosthesis, may present symptoms related either to valvular malfunction or ventricular dysfunction from other causes. Because a clinical examination is not sufficient to evaluate a prosthetic valve, several diagnostic methods have been proposed to assess the functional status of a prosthetic valve. This review provides an overview of echocardiographic and Doppler techniques useful in evaluation of prosthetic heart valves. Compared to native valves, echocardiographic evaluation of prosthetic valves is certainly more complex, both for the examination and the interpretation. Echocardiography also allows discriminating between intra- and/or peri-prosthetic regurgitation, present in the majority of mechanical valves. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) requires different angles of the probe with unconventional views. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the method of choice in presence of technical difficulties. Three-dimensional (3D)-TEE seems to be superior to 2D-TEE, especially in the assessment of paravalvular leak regurgitation (PVL) that it provides improved localization and analysis of the PVL size and shape.

Keywords: Prosthetic heart valves, transesophageal echocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, 3D transesophageal echocardiography

How to cite this article:
Sordelli C, Severino S, Ascione L, Coppolino P, Caso P. Echocardiographic assessment of heart valve prostheses . J Cardiovasc Echography 2014;24:103-13

How to cite this URL:
Sordelli C, Severino S, Ascione L, Coppolino P, Caso P. Echocardiographic assessment of heart valve prostheses . J Cardiovasc Echography [serial online] 2014 [cited 2022 Nov 29];24:103-13. Available from: https://www.jcecho.org/text.asp?2014/24/4/103/147201

  Introduction Top

Prosthetic heart valves have been successfully used in heart valve replacement over the past 40 years and can be classified into three categories: Mechanical, biologic, and transcatheter valves [Figure 1]. Despite numerous advances have been made for the development of better prostheses, remain several problems related to their use as thrombosis, thromboembolism, hemolysis, tissue overgrowth, regurgitation, and damage to endothelial lining. [1]
Figure 1: Different types of prosthetic valves. (a) Bileaflet mechanical valve (St Jude); (b) monoleaflet mechanical valve (Medtronic Hall); (c) caged ball valve (Starr-Edwards); (d) stented porcine bioprosthesis (Medtronic Mosaic); (e) stented pericardial bioprosthesis (Carpentier- Edwards Magna); (f) stentless porcine bioprosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle); (g) percutaneous bioprosthesis expanded over a balloon (Edwards-Sapien); and (h) self-expandable percutaneous bioprosthesis (Core Valve)

Click here to view

  Mechanical valves Top

The three classes ofmechanical valves aretilting disk, bileaflet, and ball-and-cage which differ primarily in the type and function ofocclude [Figure 1]a-c. Tilting disk or monoleaflet valves consist of a circular occluder disk which typically opens to 60-80° resulting in two distinct orifices of different sizes. Bileaflet valves are made of two semilunar disks attached to a rigid valve ring by small hinges and are the most common valve. The opening angle of the leaflets relative to the annulus plane ranges from 75° to 90°, and the open valve consists of three orifices: A small, slit-like central orifice between the two open leaflets and two larger semicircular orifices laterally. Caged-ball valves are no longer implanted and consist of a silastic ball with a circular sewing ring and a cage formed by three metal arches. [2]

  Biologic valves Top

Biologic valves are classified into three categories: Stented, unstented, and homograft valves [Figure 1]d-f. These valves are manufactured from biologic tissues which is less thrombogenic thanmechanical valves and do not require anticoagulation treatment. Bioprosthesis share the characteristics of flexible leaflets, a single orifice, and no leakage after valve closure; but suffer more easily from calcification. Stented bioprosthesis consists of three biologic leaflets made from the porcine aortic valve or bovine pericardium, mounted on a metal or polymeric stented ring. Unstented bioprosthesis are manufactured from porcine, bovine, or equine tissue and do not have rigid stents. Homograftsare cryopreserved human valves. [1],[2]

  Transcathetervalves Top

Transcatheter valves are essentially bioprosthetic valve mounted in aortic and pulmonary position [Figure 1]g and h]. In particular, percutaneous aortic valve implantation is an alternative to standard aortic valve replacement in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis at high operative risk. [3],[4],[5],[6] The valves are usually implanted using a percutaneous transfemoral approach or a transapical approach througha small thoracotomy. [7]

  Doppler-Echocardiographic Evaluation of Prosthetic Valves Top

Baseline assessment

Doppler echocardiography is the method of choice to evaluate prosthetic valve function and follows the same principles used for the evaluation of the native valves. A completeechocardiography includes two-dimensional (2D) imaging of the prosthetic valve, evaluation of valve leaflet/occlude morphology and mobility, measurement ofthe transprosthetic gradients and effective valvar orifice area (EOA), estimation of the degree of regurgitation, evaluation ofleft ventricle left ventricle (LV) size and systolic function, and calculation of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. [1],[2] Before echocardiography, evaluation is extremely important to know some clinical data as:

  • The type and size of the replacement valve
  • The date of surgery
  • Blood pressure and heart rate
  • The patient's height, weight, and body surface area (BSA) to identify a possible patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM).

  Evaluation of prosthetic valve stenosis Top

Qualitative parameters

In the recognition of prosthetic valve stenosis, first it is extremely important to evaluate valve leaflet/occlude morphology and mobility. Generally, the leaflets oftissue valve appear thin with no evidence of prolapsed and unrestricted motion [Figure 2]. Stentless, homograft, or autograft valves may be indistinguishable from native valves. However, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) allows a more detailed assessment about cusps calcification, endocarditis vegetations, thrombus, pannus, and reduced disk/ball/leaflet mobility. Prosthetic valve stenosis is generally associated with an abnormal valve morphology and mobility. In the case of mechanical valves there is a reduced or absent occluder mobility. For example, direct signs of prosthetic valve thrombosis include immobility or reduced leaflet mobility, and the presence of thrombus on either side of the prosthesis. Instead, pannus ingrowth appears as a progressive obstruction due to a subvalvular annulus. [8],[9],[10],[11] Biologic valves stenosis areoften associated with calcification, thickening, and reduced mobility of the leaflets [Figure 3].
Figure 2: Example of normal aortic biologic valve in systole as seen by TEE. TEE = Transesophageal echocardiography

Click here to view
Figure 3: Marked calcification of mitral biologic valve

Click here to view

Quantitative parameters

Quantitative parameters of prosthetic valve function include:

  • Transprosthetic velocity and pressure gradient;
  • Transprosthetic jet contour and acceleration time;
  • Doppler velocity index (DVI);
  • EOA.

Transprosthetic velocity and gradient

The flow velocity through a prosthetic valve is carried out with the Doppler as a native valve and includes pulsed-wave (PW) and continuous wave (CW) and color Doppler. Measurements of the prosthetic velocity and gradients must be performed by several windowsin order to minimize angulation between the Doppler beam and flow direction and to obtain the highest velocity. [10],[11],[12] However, the fluid dynamics of the mechanical valves may differ from those of the native valve. Generally, the flow is eccentric in monoleaflet valves and composed of three jets in bileaflet valves [Figure 4]. Sometimes, an abnormally high jet gradient may be detected by CW Doppler through the smaller central orifice ofbileaflet mechanical aortic or mitral prostheses leading to an overestimation of gradient. Pressure gradient is calculated with the use of the simplified Bernoulli equation: AP = 4 × V Pr 2 , where V Pr is the velocity of the peak transprosthetic flow jet in meters per second. Prosthetic valve stenosis is generally associated with increased transprosthetic peak flow velocity or mean gradient (at least 3 m/s or 20 mmHg for aortic prostheses and at least 1.9 m/s or 6 mmHg for mitral prostheses) [Table 1] and [Table 2], [Figure 5] and [Figure 6].
Figure 4: Example of bileaflet mechanical valve

Click here to view
Figure 5: Mechanical aortic prostheses. High transprosthetic peak flow velocity and mean gradient

Click here to view
Figure 6: Mitral bioprostheses. High transprosthetic peak flow velocity and mean gradient

Click here to view
Table 1: Doppler parameters of prostethic aortic valve (PrAV) function

Click here to view
Table 2: Doppler parameters of prosthetic (Pr) mitral valve function

Click here to view

Transprosthetic jet contour and acceleration time

The contour of the velocity through the prosthesis can be used to evaluate prosthetic aortic valve function. Generally, in a normal valve, the contourof the CW flow velocity has a triangular shape with early peaking of the velocity and short acceleration time (time from the onset of flow to maximal velocity <80 ms). Inprosthetic valve stenosis, is observed a more rounded velocity contour with the velocity peaking in mid-ejection, prolonged acceleration time, and ejection time as well as the ratio of acceleration time to ejection time (greater than 0.4). [10],[11],[12],[13]


The DVI is the ratio between the velocity time integral (VTI) of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) flow and the VTI of the transprosthetic flow: DVI = VTI LVOT /VTI PrAV . In the case of prosthetic mitral valve is calculated by dividing the VTI of the transprosthetic flow by that of the LVOT flow: DVI = VTI PrMv /VTI LVOT . The DVI is reduced (less than or equal to 0.3) in case of prosthetic aortic valve stenosis, while is increased (greater than or equal to 2.2 m/s) in case of prosthetic mitral valve stenosis. [13]


The EOA ofprosthetic aortic valves is calculated with the continuity equation: EOA= (CSA LVOT ΄ VTI LVOT )/VTI PrAV . CSA LVOT is the cross-sectional area of the LVOT, VTI LVOT the velocity-time integral obtained by PW Doppler in the LVOT, VTI PrAV the velocity-time integral obtained by CW Doppler through the aortic prosthesis. The cross-sectional area of the LVOT is obtained from diameter measurement just close the prosthesis from the parasternal long-axis view. For the assessment of LVOT velocity signal, it is important to locate the PW Doppler sample volume adjacent to the prosthesis. The VTI across the prosthesis is obtained from the same signals, usedfor measurement ofprosthesis peak velocity and gradient [Figure 7]. [14],[15],[16] The EOA ofprosthetic mitral valves is calculated as EOA = (CSA LVOT ΄ VTI LVOT )/VTI PrMV , where VTIPrMV is thevelocity-time integral obtained by CW Doppler through the mitral prostheses. [17] The EOAis the most validated parameter for identifying the PPM.


PPM occurs when the EOA of a normally functioning prosthesis is too small in relation to the patient's body size resulting in abnormally high postoperative gradients. Valve EOAs between 0.8 and 1.2 cm 2 and between 1.0 and 2.0 cm 2 suggest the presence of possible stenosis for aortic and mitral prostheses, respectively; whereas, values less than 0.8 cm 2 (aortic) and less than 1.0 cm 2 (mitral) indicate the presence of significant stenosis. [19] However, the recognition of prosthetic valve stenosis is better achieved by comparing the measuredEOA to the normal reference value ofEOA for the model and size of prosthesis implanted in the patient. [18],[19],[20],[23],[24],[25],[26] [Table 3] and [Table 4] shows the normal reference values of EOAs for the aortic and mitral prostheses. The most widely accepted parameter for identifying PPM is the indexed EOA, that is, the EOA of the prosthesis divided by the patient's BSA. A value of EOA <0.6 cm 2 /m 2 in aortic position and 0.9 cm 2 /m 2 in mitral position identify a sever PPM. [21],[22],[23]
Table 3: Normal reference values of EOAs for the main aortic prostheses

Click here to view
Table 4: Normal reference values of EOAs for the mitral prostheses

Click here to view

  Other causes ofhigh transprosthetic gradients Top

PPM is the principle cause of high gradient after valve replacement, but should be considered other causes of elevated transprosthetic gradient as: Intrinsic valve dysfunction, high flow state, technical errors, and central jet artifact in bileaflet valve. However, in the case of prosthetic aortic valve, to better appreciate the clinical impact of an elevated gradient, it also should considered that the net gradient is less in patients with a small aortic diameter (<3cm) because of pressure recovery and it is useful to calculate the energy loss index. [19],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[41] So in patients with small aortait could be possible an overestimate ofprosthesis valve stenosis [Figure 7]. [27],[28],[29]
Figure 7: Calculation of the effective valvar orifice area (EOA) of prosthetic aortic valve with the continuity equation

Click here to view

  Evaluation of prosthetic valve regurgitation Top

In the assessment ofprosthesis regurgitation is extremely important to distinguish physiologic from pathologic regurgitation. First, we must remember that mechanical prostheses have a normal regurgitant volume known as "leakage backflow". This "built-in" regurgitation theoretically prevents blood stasis and thrombus formation using a washing effect. Otherwise the pathologic regurgitant jets, the normal leakage backflow jets are characterized by being short in duration, narrow, and symmetric. [2],[40]

Prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation

General considerations

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) generally provides a good visualization of both transvalvular and paravalvular aortic regurgitation. [33],[41] However, regurgitant jets may be occulted by acoustic shadowing, especially in the noncoronary sinus region. When TTE is technically difficult, TEE may be useful to identify the origin and the mechanism of the regurgitant jets and to identify possible complications, such as flail bioprosthetic cusp, presence of pannus, thrombus, vegetations, abscess formation, or prosthesis dehiscence [Figure 8] and [Figure 9]. [30],[31],[32]
Figure 8: Thrombosis of mechanical mitral prosthesis as seen by TEE

Click here to view
Figure 9: Dehiscence of mechanical mitral prosthesis as seen by TEE

Click here to view

Parameters of the severity of prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation

The estimation of the severity of prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation can be performed similarly to native valve regurgitation. [40] However, there are limited data on the application and validation of quantitative parameters such as the width of the regurgitant jet or of the vena contracta, the effective regurgitant orifice area, and the regurgitant volume in the context of prosthetic valves. For this reasonis necessarya multiparametric approach [Table 5].
Table 5: Parameters for evaluation of the severity of prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation

Click here to view

Color Doppler parameters

The ratios of regurgitant jet diameter to LVOT diameter from the parasternal long-axis view and of jet area to LVOT area from the parasternal short-axis view just below the prosthesis can be used to estimate the severity of central regurgitation. A ratio of jet diameter to LVOT diameter greater than 25% suggests moderate regurgitation and > 65% severe regurgitation. However, using this approach, regurgitation severity may be overestimated in the case of eccentric jets and underestimated in the case of jets impinging the wall of the LVOT or of anterior mitral valve. Unlike the native valves, is difficult, in the long-axis view, to measure the vena contracta width because of the shadowing caused by the prosthesis ring or stent. For semiquantitative evaluation of the severity of paravalvular regurgitation, careful imaging of the neck of the jet in a short-axis view, at the level of the prosthesis sewing ring or stent, allows determination of the circumferential extent of paravalvular regurgitation. A regurgitant jet occupying less than 10% of the sewing ring or stent circumference suggests mild, 10-20% suggests moderate, and more than 20% suggests severe regurgitation. Rocking of the prosthesis is usually associated with greater than 40% dehiscence. [41],[42],[43] Moreover, the estimation of regurgitation severity becomes complex in the case ofmultiple jets so TEE may be helpful to better identify the origin of the regurgitant leak and to better estimate its circumferential extension [Figure 10].
Figure 10: Paravalvular aortic leak

Click here to view

Spectral Doppler parameters

Spectral Doppler parameters are useful to assess prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation because they are less sensitive to the prosthesis position, shadowing, and artifacts. The pressure half-time of the CW regurgitant jet signal is useful when the value is less than 200 ms, suggesting severe regurgitation, or greater than 500 ms, suggesting mild regurgitation. Moderate AR is associated with the presence of holodiastolic flow reversal in the descending thoracic aorta; severe AR is suspected when the VTI of the reverse flow approximates that of the forward flow and when the end-diastolic velocity is greater than 18 cm/s. [40]

Prosthetic mitral valve regurgitation

General considerations

Evaluation of prosthetic mitral regurgitation by TTE is problematic because the left atrium (LA) is largely occulted by the acoustic shadowing due to the metallic components of the prosthesis. In contrast, TEE provides excellent visualization of the LA and mitral regurgitant jet, but acoustic shadowing limits visualization of the LV. [40] At TTE, the presence of "occult" mitral prosthesis regurgitation should be suspected in the presence of some signs as: Flow convergence on the LV side of the prosthesis during systole, increased mitral peak E wave velocity (greater than 2 m/s), mean gradient greater than 6 mmHg, DVI greater than 2.2, unexplained or new worsening of pulmonary arterial hypertension, and a dilated and hyperkinetic LV. [33] In the suspicion of pathologic mitral regurgitation, it is imperative to perform a TEE study. On color Doppler, paravalvular leaks have a typical appearance of a jet that passes from the LV into the LA outside the prosthesis ring and often projects into the atrium in an eccentric direction [Figure 11].
Figure 11: Color Doppler images of severe paravalvular mitral regurgitation

Click here to view

Parameters of the severity of prosthetic mitral valve regurgitation

Assessment of severity of prosthetic mitral regurgitation is complex so it is recommended a multiparametricapproach [Table 6]. The estimation of regurgitant jet area in the LA is often difficult due to the shadowing and artifacts created by the prosthesis. However, a small thin jet (jet area less than 4 cm 2 , less than 20% of the LA) usually reflects mild mitral regurgitation; whereas, a large, wide jet (8 cm 2 or larger, more than 40% of the LA) is often associated with severe regurgitation. A width of the vena contracta of less than 3, 3-6, and greater than 6 mm denotes mild, moderate, and severe regurgitation, respectively. Severemitral regurgitation is generally associated with swirling of the jet within the atrium and with retrograde systolic flow in the pulmonary veins that can be more accurately evaluated by TEE. Finally, also the density and contour of the regurgitant jet CW Doppler signal may be helpful to corroborate regurgitation severity [Figure 12]. Because mitral prosthetic regurgitation is often characterized by eccentric and/or multiple jets, the proximal isovelocity surface area method is difficult to achieve and may under- or overestimate regurgitation severity. For these reasons, the volumetric method is often preferred to the proximal isovelocity surface area method for quantitation of mitral prosthesis regurgitation. [39],[40],[41],[44]
Figure 12: CW Doppler signal of severe paravalvular mitral regurgitation
CW = Continuous wave

Click here to view
Table 6: Echocardiographic and Doppler criteria for severity of prosthetic MR

Click here to view

  Specific considerations for particular valve Top

Prosthetic pulmonary valve

Prosthetic pulmonary valve are, generally, implanted in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Clues suspicion of prosthetic stenosis are marked thickening or immobility of the cusps, a small map to color Doppler, transvalvular peak velocity greater than 3 m/s, or 2 m/s, respectively for prosthesis and homograft, the presence of a depressed right ventricular functionor elevated right ventricular systolic pressure. In the presence of a severe pulmonary insufficiency, instead, there is a right ventricle volume overload associated with diastolic flattening and paradoxical movement of the interventricular septum. [12],[13],[40]

Prosthetic tricuspid valve

A suspicion of prosthetic tricuspid stenosis is given by the presence of an abnormal morphology and mobility of the leaflet, a transvalvular peak velocity greater than 1.7 m/sec, amean gradient equal or greater than 6 mmHg and a pressure half -time at least 230 msec. [13],[40]

Transcathether aortic valve

Two devices are most commonly used for transcathether aortic valve implantation. One device is the EdwardsS APIEN valve which consists of three pericardial leaflets, mounted within aballoon-expandable stent. The other device is the CoreValve ReValving system which has three pericardial leaflets mounted in a self-expanding, nitinol frame. The main approaches are transfemoral and transapical. [44] Aortic regurgitation is considered the most common drawback of transcatheter valves. [45],[46],[47] Traditionally, it is categorized as transvalvular, paravalvular, or combined [Figure 13]. A third form of regurgitation termed supraskirtal has recently been described. [49],[50],[51],[52],[53]
Figure 13: Regurgitation mechanisms after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (a) Transvalvular regurgitation (arrow) (b) paravalvular (arrow); (c) supraskirtal regurgitation above the skirt (arrow)
Adapted from Stähli et al. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Mechanisms and implications. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2013;3:15-22.

Click here to view

Paravalvular AR is the result of incomplete apposition of the prosthesis to the aortic annulus [Figures 13]b and 14b]. Transvalvular AR is the result of restricted leaflet motion, leaflet destruction, and incorrect sizing or overdilatation of the valve [Figure 13]a and [Figure 14]a. Supraskirtal AR [Figure 13]c and [Figure 14]c may occur if the prosthesis is implanted too low in the aortic position. [45],[54],[55],[56],[57],[58]
Figure 14: Different types of regurgitation in transcatheter valves. (a) Transvalvular aortic regurgitation (b) Paravalvular aortic regurgitation, and (c) Supraskirtal regurgitation

Click here to view

  Role of 3D-Echocardiography Top

Three-dimensional (3D) TEE allows an accurate assessment of prosthetic discs and planimetric evaluation of the prosthetic area [Figure 15]. However, 3D-Eco is superior to 2D-TEE, especially in the assessment of paravalvular leak regurgitation (PVL) that it provides improved localization and analysis of the PVL size and shape [Figure 16], [Figure 17], [Figure 18]. [59],[60],[61],[62],[63] To facilitate the communication between the interventionalist and echocardiographer, it is recommended that leak location be reported in a clockwise format from a 'surgical view' [Figure 18]. Aortic PVLs are more commonly located in the right and noncoronary cusps. [40] Mitral PVL location can also be reported in a similar format as the aortic valve [Figure 18]. By rotation of the echocardiographic image, the aortic valve is brought to a position at the top of the mitral ring, as viewed from the atrium. [61],[62],[63] The most common locations for mitral PVLs are near the anterolateral commissure. [62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67]
Figure 15: Three-dimensional TEE ofa mitral prosthetic discs

Click here to view
Figure 16: (a) Three-dimensional TEE ofa mitral paravalvular leak (b) Three-dimensional colorDoppler imaging of the paravalvular leak with arrow identifying the regurgitant jet. (c) Measurements of length, width, and area
Adapted from Chad Kliger et al. Review of surgical prosthetic paravalvular leaks: Diagnosis and catheter-based closure. European Heart Journal 2013; 34: 638-648.

Click here to view
Figure 17: Three-dimensional TEE ofa mitral paravalvular posteromedial leak as seen from surgical view

Click here to view
Figure 18: Aortic and mitral valves from a surgeon's perspective
H = Head, LAA = Left atrial appendage, LC = Left coronary cusp, LM = Left main coronary artery, NC = Noncoronary cusp, P = Posterior, R = Right, RC = Right coronary cusp, RCA = Right coronary artery

Click here to view

  References Top

Otto Catherine M. Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography. In: Pibarot P, Dumesnil JG. editor. 5 th ed. Chapter 25, Vol. 1, 2013. p. 470-493.  Back to cited text no. 1
Pibarot P, Dumesnil JG. Prosthetic heart valves: Selection of the optimal prosthesis and long-term management. Circulation 2009;119:1034-48.  Back to cited text no. 2
Cribier A, Eltchaninoff H, Tron C, Bauer F, Agatiello C, Sebagh L, et al. Early experience with percutaneous transcatheter implantation of heart valve prosthesis for the treatment of end-stage inoperable patients with calcific aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:698-703.  Back to cited text no. 3
Webb JG, Chandavimol M, Thompson CR, Ricci DR, Carere RG, Munt BI, et al. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation retrograde from the femoral artery. Circulation 2006;113:842-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
Grube E, Schuler G, Buellesfeld L, Gerckens U, Linke A, Wenaweser P, et al. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients using the second- and current third generation-expanding CoreValve prosthesis: Device success and 30-day clinical outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:69-76.  Back to cited text no. 5
Lichtenstein SV, Cheung A, Ye J, Thompson CR, Carere RG, Pasupati S, et al. Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation in humans: Initial clinical experience. Circulation 2006;114:591-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
Walther T, Simon P, Dewey T, Wimmer-Greinecker G, Falk V, Kasimir MT, et al. Transapical minimally invasive aortic valve implantation: Multicenter experience. Circulation 2007;116:I240-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, de Leon AC Jr, Faxon DP, Freed MD, et al., American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society of Thoracic Surgeons. ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): Developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: Endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2006;114:e84-231.  Back to cited text no. 8
Guyton RA, O' Gara PT, Ruiz CE, Skubas NJ, Sorajja P, Thoralf M, et al. ACC/AHA 2014 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 2014.  Back to cited text no. 9
Vahanian A, Baumgartner H, Bax J, Butchart E, Dion R, Filippatos G, et al., Task Force on the Management of Valvular Hearth Disease of the European Society of Cardiology; ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease: The task force on the management of valvular heart disease of the european society of cardiology. Eur Heart J 2007;28:230-68.  Back to cited text no. 10
Butchart EG, Gohlke-Barwolf C, Antunes MJ, Tornos P, De Caterina R, Cormier B, et al., Working Groups on Valvular Heart Disease, Thrombosis, and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology, European Society of Cardiology. Recommendations for the management of patients after heart valve surgery. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2463-71.  Back to cited text no. 11
Zoghbi WA, Chambers JB, Dumesnil JG, Foster E, Gottdiener JS, Grayburn PA, et al., American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee; Task Force on Prosthetic Valves; American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging Committee; Cardiac Imaging Committee of the American Heart Association; European Association of Echocardiography; European Society of Cardiology; Japanese Society of Echocardiography; Canadian Society of Echocardiography; American College of Cardiology Foundation; American Heart Association; European Association of Echocardiography; European Society of Cardiology; Japanese Society of Echocardiography; Canadian Society of Echocardiography. Recommendations for evaluation of prosthetic valves with echocardiography and doppler ultrasound: A report from the American society of echocardiography's guidelines and standards committee and the task force on prosthetic valves, developed in conjunction with the American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Imaging Committee, Cardiac Imaging Committee of the American Heart Association, the European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, the Japanese Society of Echocardiography and the Canadian Society of Echocardiography, endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association, European Association of Echocardiography, a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, the Japanese Society of Echocardiography, and Canadian Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2009;22:975-1014.  Back to cited text no. 12
Coppolino P, Coppolino F, Agretto A, Chianese R, Iannaccone G, Russo MG, et al. L'ecocardiografia nella valutazione delle protesi cardiache. Giornale italiano di Cardiologia pratica 2012.  Back to cited text no. 13
Pibarot P, Dumesnil JG. Hemodynamic and clinical impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch in the aortic valve position and its prevention. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:1131-41.  Back to cited text no. 14
Botzenhardt F, Eichinger WB, Guenzinger R, Bleiziffer S, Wagner I, Bauernschmitt R, et al. Hemodynamic performance and incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch of the complete supraannular Perimount Magna bioprosthesis in the aortic position. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005;53:226-30.  Back to cited text no. 15
Rahimtoola SH. The problem of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch. Circulation 1978;58:20-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
Dumesnil JG, Honos GN, Lemieux M, Beauchemin J. Validation and applications of mitral prosthetic valvular areas calculated by Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:1443-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
Dumesnil JG, Honos GN, Lemieux M, Beauchemin J. Validation and applications of indexed aortic prosthetic valve areas calculated by Doppler echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:637-43.  Back to cited text no. 18
Pibarot P, Dumesnil JG. Prosthesis-patient mismatch: Definition, clinical impact, and prevention. Heart 2006;92:1022-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
Magne J, Mathieu P, Dumesnil JG, Tanné D, Dagenais F, Doyle D, et al. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on survival after mitral valve replacement. Circulation 2007;115:1417-25.  Back to cited text no. 20
Lam BK, Chan V, Hendry P, Ruel M, Masters R, Bédard P, et al. The impact of patient-prosthesis mismatch on late outcomes after mitral valve replacement. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133:1464-73.  Back to cited text no. 21
Ruel M, Rubens FD, Masters RG, Pipe AL, Bedard P, Hendry PJ, et al. Late incidence and predictors of persistent or recurrent heart failure in patients with aortic prosthetic valves. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004;127:149-59.  Back to cited text no. 22
Bleiziffer S, Eichinger WB, Hettich I, Ruzicka DJ, Wottke M, Bauernschmitt R, et al. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on exercise capacity in patients after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement. Heart 2008;94:637-41.  Back to cited text no. 23
Blais C, Dumesnil JG, Baillot R, Simard S, Doyle D, Pibarot P. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on short-term mortality after aortic valve replacement. Circulation 2003;108:983-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
Walther T, Rastan A, Falk V, Lehmann S, Garbade J, Funkat AK, et al. Patient prosthesis mismatch affects short- and long-term outcomes after aortic valve replacement. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2006;30:15-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
Mohty D, Malouf JF, Girard SE, Schaff HV, Grill DE, Enriquez-Sarano ME, et al. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on long-term survival in patients with small St Jude medical mechanical prostheses in the aortic position. Circulation 2006;113:420-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Castro LJ, Arcidi JM Jr, Fisher AL, Gaudiani VA. Routine enlargement of the small aortic root: A preventive strategy to minimize mismatch. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;74:31-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
Kulik A, Al Saigh M, Chan V, Masters RG, Bedard P, Lam BK, et al. Enlargement of the small aortic root during aortic valve replacement: Is there a benefit? Ann Thorac Surg 2008;85:94-100.  Back to cited text no. 28
Sommers KE, David TE. Aortic valve replacement with patch enlargement of the aortic annulus. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:1608-12.  Back to cited text no. 29
Jamieson WR, Cartier PC, Allard M, Boutin C, Burwash IG, Butany J, et al. Surgical management of valvular heart disease 2004. Can J Cardiol 2004;20:7E-120E.  Back to cited text no. 30
McAnulty JH, Rahimtoola SH. Antithrombotic therapy for valvular heart disease. In: Fuster V, O'Rourke RA, Walsh RA, Poole-Wilson P, editors. 13 th ed. Vol. 2. Hurst's The Heart. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008. p. 1800-7.  Back to cited text no. 31
Vesey JM, Otto CM. Complications of prosthetic heart valves. Curr Cardiol Rep 2004;6:106-11.  Back to cited text no. 32
Bach DS. Transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) evaluation of prosthetic valves. Cardiol Clin 2000;18:751-71.  Back to cited text no. 33
Baumgartner H, Khan S, DeRobertis M, Czer L, Maurer G. Discrepancies between Doppler and catheter gradients in aortic prosthetic valves in vitro: A manifestation of localized gradients and pressure recovery. Circulation 1990;82:1467-75.  Back to cited text no. 34
Levine RA, Jimoh A, Cape EG, McMillan S, Yoganathan AP, Weyman AE. Pressure recovery distal to a stenosis: Potential cause of gradient "overestimation" by Doppler echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:706-15.  Back to cited text no. 35
Vandervoort PM, Greenberg NL, Powell KA, Cosgrove DM, Thomas JD. Pressure recovery in bileaflet heart valve prostheses. Localized high velocities and gradients in central and size orifices with implications for Doppler-catheter gradient relation in aortic and mitral position. Circulation 1995;92:3464-72.  Back to cited text no. 36
Pibarot P, Honos GN, Durand LG, Dumesnil JG. Substitution of left ventricular outflow tract diameter with prosthesis size is inadequate for calculation of the aortic prosthetic valve area by the continuity equation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1995;8:511-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
Bitar JN, Lechin ME, Salazar G, Zoghbi WA. Doppler echocardiographic assessment with the continuity equation of St. Jude medical mechanical prostheses in the mitral valve position. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:287-93.  Back to cited text no. 38
Fernandes V, Olmos L, Nagueh SF, Quinones MA, Zoghbi WA. Peak early diastolic velocity rather than pressure half-time is the best index of mechanical prosthetic mitral valve function. Am J Cardiol 2002;89:704-10.  Back to cited text no. 39
Zoghbi WA, Enriquez-Sarano M, Foster E, Grayburn PA, Kraft CD, Levine RA, et al; American Society of Echocardiography. Recommendations for evaluation of the severity of native valvular regurgitation with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003;16:777-802.  Back to cited text no. 40
Vitarelli A, Conde Y, Cimino E, Leone T, D'Angeli I, D'Orazio S, et al. Assessment of severity of mechanical prosthetic mitral regurgitation by transoesophageal echocardiography. Heart 2004;90:539-44.  Back to cited text no. 41
Schoen FJ, Levy RJ. Calcification of tissue heart valve substitutes: Progress toward understanding and prevention. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;79:1072-80.  Back to cited text no. 42
Roudaut R, Serri K, Lafitte S. Thrombosis of prosthetic heart valves: Diagnosis and therapeutic considerations. Heart 2007;93:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 43
Vahanian A, Alfieri O, Al-Attar N, Antunes M, Bax J, Cormier B, et al. Transcatheter valve implantation for patients with aortic stenosis: A position statement from the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), in collaboration with the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI). Eur Heart J 2008;29:1463-70.  Back to cited text no. 44
Stähli BE, Maier W, Corti R, Lüscher TF, Jenni R, Tanner FC. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Mechanisms and implications. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2013;3:15-22.  Back to cited text no. 45
Cribier A, Eltchaninoff H, Tron C, Bauer F, Agatiello C, Nercolini D, et al. Treatment of calcific aortic stenosis with the percutaneous heart valve: Mid-term follow-up from the initial feasibility studies: The French experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1214-23.  Back to cited text no. 46
Grube E, Laborde JC, Gerckens U, Felderhoff T, Sauren B, Buellesfeld L, et al. Percutaneous implantation of the CoreValve self-expanding valve prosthesis in high-risk patients with aortic valve disease: The Siegburg first-in-man study. Circulation 2006;114:1616-24.  Back to cited text no. 47
Moss RR, Ivens E, Pasupati S, Humphries K, Thompson CR, Munt B, et al. Role of echocardiography in percutaneous aortic valve implantation. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2008;1:15-24.  Back to cited text no. 48
Abdel-Wahab M, Zahn R, Horack M, Gerckens U, Schuler G, Sievert H, et al., German transcatheter aortic valve interventions registry investigators. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Incidence and early outcome. Results from the German transcatheter aortic valve interventions registry. Heart 2011;97:899-906.  Back to cited text no. 49
Rajani R, Kakad M, Khawaja MZ, Lee L, James R, Saha M, et al. Paravalvular regurgitation one year after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2010;75:868-72.  Back to cited text no. 50
Mohammadi S, Tchana-Sato V, Kalavrouziotis D, Voisine P, Doyle D, Baillot R, et al. Long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of the Freestyle stentless aortic bioprosthesis. Circulation 2012;126:S198-204.  Back to cited text no. 51
Gotzmann M, Korten M, Bojara W, Lindstaedt M, Rahlmann P, Mügge A, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with moderate and severe prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Am J Cardiol 2012;110:1500-6.  Back to cited text no. 52
Mohr-Kahaly S, Kupferwasser I, Erbel R, Wittlich N, Iversen S, Oelert H, et al. Value and limitations of transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of aortic prostheses. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1993;6:12-20.  Back to cited text no. 53
Gonçalves A, Almeria C, Marcos-Alberca P, Feltes G, Hernández-Antolín R, Rodríguez E, et al. Three-dimensional echocardiography in paravalvular aortic regurgitation assessment after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2012;25:47-55.  Back to cited text no. 54
Anwar AM, Nosir YF, Zainal-Abidin SK, Ajam A, Chamsi-Pasha H. Real-time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in daily practice: Initial experience. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2012;10:14.  Back to cited text no. 55
Lancellotti P, Tribouilloy C, Hagendorff A, Moura L, Popescu BA, Agricola E, et al. European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. Part 1: Aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease). Eur J Echocardiogr 2010;11:223-44.  Back to cited text no. 56
Kliger C, Eiros R, Isasti G, Einhorn B, Jelnin V, Cohen H, et al. Review of surgical prosthetic paravalvular leaks: Diagnosis and catheter-based closure. Eur Heart J 2013;34:638-49.  Back to cited text no. 57
Cortes M, Garcia E, Garcia-Fernandez MA, Gomez JJ, Perez-David E, Fernandez-Aviles F. Usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography in percutaneous transcatheter repairs of paravalvular mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:382-6.  Back to cited text no. 58
Ruiz CE, Jelnin V, Kronzon I, Dudiy Y, Del Valle-Fernandez R, Einhorn BN, et al. Clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous closure of periprosthetic paravalvular leaks. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;58:2210-7.  Back to cited text no. 59
De Cicco G, Lorusso R, Colli A, Nicolini F, Fragnito C, Grimaldi T, et al. Aortic valve periprosthetic leakage: Anatomic observations and surgical results. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;79:1480-5.  Back to cited text no. 60
De Cicco G, Russo C, Moreo A, Beghi C, Fucci C, Gerometta P, et al. Mitral valve periprosthetic leakage: Anatomical observations in 135 patients from a multicentre study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2006;30:887-91.  Back to cited text no. 61
Kronzon I, Sugeng L, Perk G, Hirsh D, Weinert L, Garcia Fernandez MA, et al. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of post-operative mitral annuloplasty ring and prosthetic valve dehiscence. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:1543-7.  Back to cited text no. 62
Garcia-Fernandez MA, Cortes M, Garcia-Robles JA, Gomez de Diego JJ, Perez-David E, Garcia E. Utility of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in evaluating the success of percutaneous transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leaks. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2010;23:26-32.  Back to cited text no. 63
Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, Cassidy MM, White RD, Cheitlin MD, Schiller NB, et al. Mitral or aortic regurgitation: Quantification of regurgitant volumes with cine MR imaging. Radiology 1988;167:425-30.  Back to cited text no. 64
Hundley WG, Li HF, Willard JE, Landau C, Lange RA, Meshack BM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the severity of mitral regurgitation. Comparison with invasive techniques. Circulation 1995;92:1151-8.  Back to cited text no. 65
Sherif MA, Abdel-Wahab M, Beurich HW, Stocker B, Zachow D, Geist V, et al. Haemodynamic evaluation of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. EuroIntervention 2011;7:57-63.  Back to cited text no. 66
Zamorano JL, Badano LP, Bruce C, Chan KL, Goncalves A, Hahn RT, et al., Document Reviewers: European Association of Echocardiography (EAE): American Society of Echocardiography (ASE): The ASE Guidelines and Standards Committee and the ASE Board of Directors. EAE/ASE recommendations for the use of echocardiography in new transcathether valvular interventions for valvular heart disease. Eur J Echocardiogr 2011;12:557-84.  Back to cited text no. 67


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16], [Figure 17], [Figure 18]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]

This article has been cited by
1 Intraoperative echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve translocation
Erik R Strauss, Rachael W Quinn, Chetan Pasrija, Reney Henderson, Sari D Holmes, Michael N DíAmbra, James S Gammie
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Direct relationship between transvalvular velocity and cardiac dysfunction, morbidity, and mortality in patients with aortic stenosis
Sameh Yousef, Andrea Amabile, Chirag Ram, Saket Singh, Ritu Agarwal, Rita Milewski, Roland Assi, Prakash A. Patel, Markus Krane, Arnar Geirsson, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula
Journal of Cardiac Surgery. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Characteristic localization patterns of thrombus on various brands of bileaflet mitral mechanical heart valves as assessed by three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and their relationship with thromboembolism
Munevver Sari,Zubeyde Bayram,Mehmet Ayturk,Emrah Bayam,Semih Kalkan,Ahmet Guner,Macit Kalcik,Mustafa Ozan Gursoy,Sabahattin Gunduz,Mehmet Ozkan
The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Elevated Prosthetic Valve Gradients: What to Consider When Determining an Etiology
Dietrich Michael,Mankad Rekha
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Safety of thrombolytic therapy in patients with prosthetic heart valve thrombosis who have high international normalized ratio levels
Khadijeh Farzaneh,Seyedeh Hamideh Mortazavi,Alireza Oraii,Kyomars Abbasi,Abbas Salehi Omran,Seyed Hossein Ahmadi Tafti,Ali Bozorgi,Ali Kazemi Saeed,Mojtaba Salarifar,Saeed Sadeghian
Journal of Cardiac Surgery. 2020; 35(10): 2522
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Porcine small intestinal submucosa mitral valve material responses support acute somatic growth
Brittany A. Gonzalez,Elnaz Pour Issa,Omkar V. Mankame,Jenniffer Bustillos,Antonio Cuellar,Andres J. Rodriguez,Frank Scholl,Steven Bibevski,Lazaro Hernandez,Vincent Brehier,Mike Casares,Krishna Rivas,Pablo Morales,Jesus Lopez,Joseph Wagner,Jennifer Bibevski,Arvind Agarwal,Florence George,Sharan Ramaswamy
Tissue Engineering Part A. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Exergy Analysis of the Heart with a Stenosis in the Arterial Valve
Julio Brand„o Roll,Matheus Leone Borges,Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian Mady,Silvio de Oliveira Junior
Entropy. 2019; 21(6): 563
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Echocardiographic evaluation of heart valve prosthetic dysfunction
Yuriy Ivaniv
Heart, Vessels and Transplantation. 2018; 2(Issue 1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 A funnel shaped pannus formation above the mitral prosthetic valve diagnosed with real time three-dimensional echocardiography
Ezgi Ocakli,Oben Baysan,Tugba Altuner,Sinan Kocaman
Heart, Vessels and Transplantation. 2017; 1(Issue 2): 55
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Mechanical valves
Biologic valves
Evaluation of pr...
Other causes ofh...
Evaluation of pr...
Specific conside...
Role of 3D-Echoc...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded2172    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 9    

Recommend this journal